During the 1920 Nanjing had a population of 250,000. But during 1930, the city was exceptionally populated with more than one million occupants. This expansion was of Japanese occupation and innumerable refugees escaping to the city from Manchuria and other Chinese territories toward the east of Nanjing. The city of Nanjing was a protected city for the Chinese until the point that Japanese powers progressed towards it from Shanghai on November eleventh, 1937. The Japanese planes bombed the wealthy and more populated zones of the city. The most obliterating bombarding happened on September 25th, 1937. Its objectives were engaged upon hospitals with a red cross on the rooftop, refugee’s camps, control plants, waterworks, and radio stations. Around 500 bombs were dropped from 9:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., and thus, there were more than 600 deaths.
When somebody says the word holocaust, generally individuals relate that word with the Germans and Jews from World War II. When Japan is specified the first thing that comes in the mind is the nuclear bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Nanjing Massacre is known as the forgotten holocaust. It is about how much people suffered from such holocaust, the reasons of why this holocaust took place. Three hundred thousand individuals were brutally killed and 20,000 ladies were raped in the city of Nanjing, amid the long periods of 1937-1938 (Yao).
For the following a month and a half, there were ruthless, inhuman, and awfully savage acts currently known as the Nanjing Massacre. The Japanese submitted venomous acts against innocent civilians, Chinese warriors, exiles, and numerous others. The violations went from mass execution to burning, raping, and looting.
The Japanese did to the Chinese during the forgotten holocaust, the Chinese holocaust. Among the general question between numerous nations, Japanese aggression on the Chinese was one of the worst occasions in history to ever occur. The Japanese devastated numerous city areas of China. In particular, they devastated the city of Nanjing by leading mass bombings and mass killings. Different actions of Japanese terrible activities against the Chinese occurred in a place called Unit 731.
It all began in the year 1931, where Japan wanted to increase the area of its empire. They also wanted to exploit China’s vast natural resources, invaded and occupy the province of Manchuria. Six years later, Japan invaded on China which cost lives of 20 million Chinese people. Not only China, but Japan also invaded on Malaya, Burma, Indochina, the Philippines and the Dutch West Indies in which additional 8.6 million people died.
This “comfort women” was created by the Japanese soldiers in which the soldiers after returning from the battle, used to rape women and they also used woman in sexual slavery. One of the Historians named Yoshiaki Yoshimi found incontrovertible evidence which proved that there were around 2,000 comfort stations around Asia. This “comfort women” was also named to be the rape centres. It was held that there were 200,000 women from Korea, the Philippines and other countries.
In December, 1937, Japanese captured Nanjing and they started massacre in Nanjing. The Japanese soldiers used to roam around the streets and used to murder anyone they found on the streets. They were said to be the goons of Nanjing. It was estimated that around 150,000 people were buried and that too with their hands tied with ropes or other materials, or in a bad shape that it can’t be even described. Within 6 weeks of this massacre that took place, it was estimated that around 300,000 of people were being killed and buried which is a large number of people. It was estimated that around 20,000 women were raped by the Japanese soldiers.
Japan was being tried in War Crimes Tribunal where the Japanese military leaders were held to be the defendants of the particular case. But in that case, Japan contended that they were not bound by the 1929 Geneva Convention which they although signed but was not properly ratified. They were bound by the Hague Convention of 1907, which gave the shield to the POW’s (Prisoners of Wars) who remained protected under the laws. Knowing this fact, Japan used to force the POW’s for around 130 miles of death marches and also used forced labour in the projects which were related to the wars. POW’s were also denied adequate food, water and medical care. They were used as targets for the shooting practice, they were beheaded. It is also contended that the Japanese used to treat POW’s even worse than the Nazis used to treat. The War Crimes Tribunals had estimated that around Japan had interned around 350,000 of POW’s. It was also estimated that 27% of the allied POW’s died during the captivity, whereas 4% of POW’s were dead in German and Italian captivity.
By the use of witnesses and official documents, it can be proved that Japanese soldiers used to eat the corpses of the prisoners and the enemies that they killed during the battle. This behaviour does not throw light on to what they were up to proving? Were they suffering from some kind of mental instability or they had so much rage in themselves which make them do such activities? Not only the prisoners and enemies, but they also used to eat corpses of the Australian soldiers and the civilians of New Guinea. This something around seems like they had some kind of rage which made them do such activities. It is very important to note that this all was not done as they were lacking the necessities. They had enough necessities at that time. They had proper food, water and clothing. They used to kill the people, and then eat the flesh of the people, also they used to eat liver, muscles from the buttocks, thigh, legs and arms but they used to cook them first and eat it.
Japan’s Holocaust was put to an end when two atomic bombs were being dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. A quarter of million Japanese people were being killed in the bombarding done by the American Government. After 9 days later of this incident, the Japanese soldiers surrendered. In this massive massacre, it would be shocked to know that only 28 of the Japanese military and government officials had been tried in the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal. During the ongoing trial, 3 of the suspects were being killed and the other 25 were being found guilty. Out of 25, 7 were hanged to death, and 18 were given sentenced to death. The victims of the “comfort women” have claimed a full demand for an apology from the Japanese Government. They were also awarded the compensation of $8.3 million to the next kin.
Asian Holocaust took place because of four major reasons:
Human rights are the fundamental rights and freedom that belongs to every person in the world from birth until death. They apply regardless of where you are from, what you accept or how you carry on with your life. They can never be taken away, in spite of the fact that they can be limited – for instance, if a man infringes upon the law, or in light of a legitimate concern for national security. These basic rights are based on shared values like dignity, fairness, equality, respect and independence. These qualities are characterized and secured by law. In India, our human rights are secured by the National Human Rights Commission 1993.
Preventive Detention means the confinement of a man without trial. The motive of Preventive detentions is to keep a man from accomplishing something and the detention, in this case, takes place on the apprehension that he is going to do something wrong which comes within any of the grounds specified by the Constitution. The right to no unfair detainment is important because it helps to ensure people are not falsely confined for any appropriate reason.
In Asian holocaust, families were evicted from their homes and forced into a ghetto they could not leave. They were forced to sacrifice their home and obey the will of the soldiers or face the consequences. The soldiers kept tight account of all the people count them and making sure no one left or escaped. This was the unfair detention on the people of China by the Japanese military.
Article 22 of the United Nations of UDHR stated social security. We all have the right to affordable housing, medicine, education, and childcare, enough money to live on and medical help if we are ill or old.
Japan forced POWs to walk through 130-mile death march and constrained work on war-related ventures. They were denied sufficient food, water and medical consideration. They were guillotined or utilized as focuses for rifle and assault rifle practice. Japan treated its POWs much more terrible than the Nazis: After the war, councils found that Japan had interned around 350,000 prisoners of war. An expected 27% of Allied POWs died in imprisonment, contrasted with a minor 4% of POWs who passed on in German and Italian bondage. Soldiers conducted biological experiments on POWs. “They exposed subjects to cholera, plague, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid and syphilis.” Their organs were removed and holes were drilled in their heads. Prisoners were sprayed with saltwater to induce frostbite in subzero temperatures and then hit with hammers — all in the name of science. It was estimated that Japanese soldiers killed 250000 Chinese by biological experiments and biological warfare. They did not give any medical help as it was entirely ruled by Japanese soldiers.
Article 3 of the Universal Declaration provides that “everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.”. The right is available to every person, citizen or alien. The right to life is a moral principle based on the belief that a human being has the right to live and, in particular, should not be murdered by another human being.
In Asian holocaust peoples, life was not protected. For six weeks in China people were brutally treated and killed. The Japanese soldiers committed a venomous act against innocent civilians, soldiers and refugees. The crimes committed were mass burning, rape and looting. By the use of witnesses and official documents, it can be proved that Japanese soldiers used to eat the corpses of the prisoners and the enemies that they killed during the battle. On December 13 the refugees tried to cross the river to save their lives. But there was no transportation and in meanwhile Japanese soldiers arrived. They started shooting at the people in the river and on the shore. The river was covered with 50000 bodies of men, women and children. The street of Nanjing was called the ‘street of blood’ in two days. Places, where safety zones were set up for citizens and refugees, were raid and men were shot on the spot. In many cases, mass killings were done by machine guns and those who were still alive they were burned or bayoneted one by one. For the Japanese soldiers, killing people was a fun game so they used to invent new ways to kill them. Women were raped brutally. Refugees were guillotined, or utilized as focuses for rifle and assault rifle practice. All the inhuman acts were done by the Japanese soldiers. No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law. But in this case, no person was at the liberty to live their life, they were killed inhumanly.
Torture occurs when someone deliberately causes very serious and cruel suffering (physical or mental) to another person. This might be to punish someone or to intimidate or obtain information from them.
Inhuman treatment or punishment is a treatment which causes intense physical or mental suffering. It includes:
• Heinous physical assault
• psychological assault
• wrongful detention conditions or restraints
• Heinous physical or psychological abuse in a health or care setting.
Article 5 of the UDHR (UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS), 1948 proclaims that “No one shall be subjected to torture, or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.”
In Asian holocaust, the people were tortured brutally. Women of all ages were raped and tortured. In six weeks’ almost 20000 women were raped. Soldiers used to rape the women on the street and then kill them by stabbing into the vagina or slicing open the stomach. Women were left on the street with their genitals hanging out. They would rape pregnant women and then their fetus was removed by slitting the bellies. Father was forced to rape their daughters and sons were forced to rape their mother. The fetus was used to play football. The Japanese would gang-rape women up to twenty times a day. These were the acts of torture faced by the citizens of Nanjing as they were physically assaulted, psychologically abused and wrongfully detained which is included in the definition of torture.
On August 6, 1945, during world war II the first bomb (B 29) was being deployed on one of the city of Japan that is Hiroshima, by which around 90 per cent of the people of that particular city were being affected, 80,000 people were killed and thousands died due to effect of radiation exposure.
After three days the second bomb was being dropped on the city, Nagasaki situated in Japan itself, where 40,000 people of that city were being miserably affected and died. During this massacre, there were bombarding that was still going on at that time but it was being analyzed that if such bombarding would continue then it would cost around 1 million people to give up their life. With this estimate, President Truman with the advice of other top military commanders decided to drop two atomic bombs on the two cities of Japan which would make the war to end and which will not cost lives of many people. This whole bombarding by the American government on the two cities of Japan was that the President of America Harry. S. Truman wanted the Japanese soldiers to surrender their weapons and also themselves from the crimes committed by them.
There was also one more theory related to this attack that is, the US was unhappy with japans increasing belligerent attitude towards China. The Japanese government believed that to solve the economic problems of the country was to expand to its neighbouring country and take over all of its imports. So to end this Japanese attacked China and the rest was history, resulting in the Nanking Massacre and other atrocities. Peace talks happened between Japan and the US but neither of the parties was ready to come at the same grounds it seemed that war was all but inevitable.
To the Japanese, Pearl Harbor was an irresistibly easy target. Pearl Harbor was the easiest target for Japanese army because it was unprotected as American never thought anyone would attack a base that is so close to the country. In all, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor crippled or destroyed nearly 20 American ships and more than 300 aeroplanes. Dry docks and airfields were too destroyed. Most importantly, 2,403 sailors, soldiers and civilians were killed and about 1,000 people were wounded. Well the steps that were taken by the American government was not a proper way as it would have cost lives of many people though not in a count of millions but in enormous amounts. But this step that was taken just brought an end to this massacre which caused relief to the upcoming generations as they are also aware as to how many people had suffered from this massacre.