Climate Emergency & Role of International laws

As the world is going through a severe climate change and every day there is news relating to climate abnormality therefore, there is a need to discuss this issue in deep. From the last 3 decades, there is much news relating to the climate changes starting from the glacier melting to hole in the Ozone layer and signing in to the latest bush fire in Australia where many animals were killed in the fire spread across the country. But this not an issue only with one country but every country on this Earth is experiencing the havoc of , for instance, the flood occurs in Venice and the flash floods occurring in the Asian region clearly show the intensity of climate change. Therefore it is important for the world to work against climate change but unfortunately, there is very little or no work that has been done against climate change, there is a shocking truth that many countries do not even feel that there is a climate emergency.

That’s is why there is a need to accelerate the speed to work against climate change and for this, there are some steps that are needed to be taken by the (United Nations) and other international agencies in order to make the states do work against the climate change.  

Climate Emergency  

There has been a long debate on what has caused major harm to the climate and the major reason behind it. But the result of the unnecessary debate is zero and the climate is getting adverse day by day. The Prolonging of climate action plans has led to adverse condition and increase in temperature of the earth. Therefore it is important to look over a major issue that is climate change. Climate change is the result of the Human as well as other natural activities. But mainly it can be said the Human self-centered policy, selfishness and ambition to conquer nature is the biggest reason for the climate change and the adverse condition is yet to be seen. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (), define climate change to a change of climate that is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and that is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods. These climate changes are not of sudden action or sudden evolvement of natural disturbance but it is the result of the continuous process of human as well as natural activities for example emission of Co2 by the Industries which causes major damage to the environment. Another example is acid rains caused due to the increase of Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen in the environment which causes major harm to the water and soil fertility. Hence it can be said that climate change is not a sudden process but accumulation of human activities as well as natural changes. Some major example of the climate change in the whole world are depletion of the ice cap from the north pole at an alarming rate which will tend to increase the sea level and can be responsible for the sinking of countries like Maldives and Coastal areas of India in which cities like Mumbai and Chennai are at a high risk. Therefore climate change has become one of the major issues for all the countries.  As it is been known that the whole world is at the edge of the devastating climate change, it has its major effect on the whole world especially when it comes to land water and flora and fauna. They have been majorly been affected by climate change. The biggest example of this is heatwave that is hitting on Australia right now and has caused major damage to its both flora and fauna. The Great Barrier Reef which was known for its beauty of corals and is of the UNESCO heritage site and attraction for the tourist from all over the world is now been half-dead and has been badly bleached because of the increase in sea temperature. 

Climate Emergency & Role of International laws

According to the National Geographic Report, the bleaching process is going on since 1980 and today the condition is that half of the coral reef is dead.  This process is not been stopped yet and with the time it has accelerated. The corals are an important part of the aquatic life the Algae which depend on corals for its survival like nutrients and shelter and coral eat them. But because of the increase in temperature this cycle is been destroyed and today the half of the colorful coral bed is dead. This process if continues and the extreme temperature is going to rise there will be a day when the whole sea would be a dead sea without any aquatic life. 

The aquatic animals are not only the victim of climate change in Australia but also the animal on land and air are also been suffering from climate change in Australia. The extreme temperature in Australia has caused death of nearby thousands of animals like bats, birds and other animals who are not able to cope up with the extreme temperature that has hit the whole Australia In the last three years the temperature in summers in Australia has gone up to 35 degree Celsius which is one of the extreme temperatures reported till now in Australia. Another example that can be quoted in relation to the climate change is an extreme heatwave in Europe in the year 2018 the temperature rise up to five times in the year 2018 which was caused due to the extreme climate disturbance. This heatwave was an alarm for the whole of Europe which was known for the breath-taking views is going to suffer the biggest climate issues in the nearby future. There have been instances of floods and heavy rainfall all over Europe in the last few years because of the increase in temperature. Therefore there is a need to work against climate change.

UN and International Laws against Climate Change

UN holds an important place in the International arena it is not just the International Platform to discuss the international issues among, but it has also determined to give solutions to major issues that are been faced by the whole world. There are many example which showcases that UN has many times participated directly into the issue in order to keep peace and harmony in the whole world and therefore in this regard, the United Nation in the year set up the MDG (Millennium Development Goal) in the year 2000, these goals were set up in order to fight major issues that the world is facing like clean water, poverty, and climate change. MDG’s were converted into 17 goals in the year 2012 in Rio de Janeiro under the conference of United Nation on sustainable development goal the UN has developed the in order to solve the major issues of the world and so it has given 17 sustainable development goal which has been to be achieved by 2030 by the all the states and one of the goals in these 17 sustainable development goals are climate action goal which has important place in the SDG. The role of SDG is very crucial in the management of climate action, they are not just the simple goals that have been set up by the UN but they are contributing at a very large level scale in order to support climate action. In the year 2015, The Paris agreement was signed by the member states in order to bring down the temperature of Earth by 2 degrees Celsius. The Paris agreement is one of the major achievements that has been made by the UN in which all the member states have agreed to come together and agree to the same decision of counter striking the climate change which has caused major damage to all nations around the world.

Climate Emergency & Role of International laws

The SDG has not only limited to convention or agreement but with the help of many agencies like UNFCCC, and IUCN and other agencies it has brought a major change in the climate action policies around the world.  These agencies are making the crucial studies in order to save the climate from getting worst and setting up goals for the countries to cut down the carbon emission and safeguard their nature from getting worst because of the climate change. Another major work done by the UN in this field is by setting convention which is known as UNFCCC, The United Nation Framework Convention on climate change was born in May 1992 in the Rio Earth summit which is also known as UNCED (United Nation Conference on Environment and Development) after which it was opened for all the countries to sign it. In the year 1994 march 21 the UNFCCC came into existence after the 50th ratification done by the country. In the year 2007, there are about 192 countries are now part of the UNFCCC. The UNFCCC has completed 20 years of its establishment in these 20 years it has created a lot of landmark regarding climate action. The major work of UNFCCC is the Kyoto protocol and Paris agreement which has been successfully accepted by countries all around the world. The UNFCCC is not only limited to policy planning but it also doing the implementation work which is a very much important part. The UNFCCC has done a lot of work against climate change but the major work that is done by it is the successful passing of the Paris agreement and the Kyoto protocol which are working very effectively against climate change. Another UN agency that works in the climate action field is IPCC.

The IPCC is the result of the resolution that was passed in the year 1988 by the General Assembly in the UN. With the emerging need for climate action, the IPCC was established by the UN with a resolution of 48 by 56 votes on 6th December 1988. The main aim of the IPCC was to establish a panel that can work in relation to climate action and that can find out the major reason that is responsible for the climate change, what are the major issues that are in front of the whole world in tackling the climate change. But these steps taken by the UN can only be effective if all states come together, but as explained states self –centered policies are the major reason for climate change.

Conclusion  

As it has been discussed that the whole world is going from a transition period of climate change which is going to be severe in the future and the coming generation is going to suffer a lot. This situation will be extreme in countries like India and Brazil like countries because these countries are developing countries and hence they will be most affected by the climate change, the countries have to face the flood-like situation in parts of their country like India experience the flood-like situation in the Kerala and North East region this situation led to many casualties in both areas as well as a huge loss to property.  Therefore there is a requirement to control such a situation and to make better climate action plans so that the targets that have been fixed by the UN in the form of SDG goal to achieve sustainable development. The Paris agreement has asked the countries to help in reducing the temperature of Earth up to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The UN has started many programs under this agreement in order to reduce the Earth’s temperature up to 1.5 degrees Celsius. But the state’s policies are responsible for the nonfulfillment of the targets and hence UN cannot be held solely for the failure of climate action policies. Thus there is a need for states to come together in order to fight against climate change leaving behind there lust for developments.   

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