Who are Internally Displaced persons?
Internally displaced person or the group of persons who have been forced to flee their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, mass human right violation, natural or human-made disasters and one who have not crossed an internationally recognized state border. Like some of the most famous, Kashmiri Pandits, the North- East displacement after ethnic cleansing, Internal displacement in Gujarat after the Gujarat riots, displacement of Nepalese in Northeast India, internal displacement in Central India significantly because of naxalites.
In terms of South Asia, India has the highest level of displacement associated with disasters. It is successively one of the countries with the highest level of disaster based displacement, globally. Between 2008 and 2018 about 3.6 million people were displaced on a yearly basis, flood (due to monsoon) being the major reason that triggered. India is also prone to other sudden and slow onset hazards which include tsunamis, cyclones, storm surges and drought. The high vulnerability and exposure of the population to these hazards means yearly displacement numbers remain high and the conflicts like Kashmir and localised ethnic and religious violence happening for a prolonged time drive displacement every year but to a little extent.
According to a data disasters displaced around 2.7 million people, about 2 million of which was associated with flood due to monsoon. Recent cyclones like Cyclone fani have displaced lakhs of people in the region. In terms of man-made disasters like Shelling in the border areas of LOC led to lakhs of displacement.
IMPACT ON IDPs
The people who particularly don’t live in formal camps and resettlement areas are the one who are most vulnerable to humanitarian crisis, mainly the socially excluded communities such as indigenous groups, religious minorities and scheduled castes are often at high risk of becoming displaced and simultaneously propelled further in poverty and margins.
Females displaced in the conflict are often the most vulnerable to gender based violence and struggle to avail healthcare, education, livelihoods and legal remedies. This can be analyzed by the fact that IDPs often loose their identity cards, mainly because of confiscation which hinder their access to social security.
The people who are displaced by reason of development they themselves don’t get the benefit of it and if yet some get it, it is inadequate to restart their lives. People who have been rehabilitated reported a range of challenges, including inadequate housing, absence of basic services, lack of safety for women and children and very limited opportunities.
IMPORTANT GOVERNMENT POLICIES
In 2004, National Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation for Project Affected Families updated in 2007 aimed to reduce large scale displacement associated with development projects. Similarly in the year 2013 “The right to fair compensation and transparency in land acquisition, resettlement and rehabilitation Act (LARR)” which have improved the compensation rates.Government have also introduced a crucial legislation in disaster based displacement in 2016.
After completion of big rehabilitation projects after the independence when millions of people are displaced from their ancestral land, government started a big rehabilitation drive. See the condition of today’s world where there are atrocities happening against people like lynching of minorities, mass murder of tribal and ethnic based crimes drive a big displacement of people. It is the government’s responsibility of maintaining the public order and strict implementation of policies which hinder these Human made displacement and considering the frequent floods and cyclones government have to improve its forecasting facilities and planned deploy of resources and army in the affected areas to rehabilitate the entire region, so that no one would be left in the line, judiciary too have to play a major role in awaking the executive and legislative like today notice have been served to the government to implement strictly its lynching based orders, to make the ecosystem work.